Network exploring Ethics of Ambulance Trials (NEAT)

Funding body Wellcome Trust
Total funding £49.681
  • Prof A N Siriwardena, CaHRU, University of Lincoln
  • Dr Adele Langlois, School of Social and Political Sciences, University of Lincoln
  • Dr Stephanie Armstrong, CaHRU, University of Lincoln
  • Prof Philip Bath, Nottingham University
  • Prof Jonathan Benger, University of West of England
  • Prof Gavin Perkins, Warwick University
  • Prof Tom Quinn, Kingston University and St George’s, University of London
  • Prof Helen Snooks, Swansea University
  • Dr Chris Price, Newcastle University
  • Dr Sarah Voss, University of West of England
  • Prof David Townend, Maastricht University
  • Prof David Shaw, Masstrich University & University of Basel
  • University of Lincoln
  • Nottingham University
  • University of West of England
  • Warwick University
  • Kingston University London and St George’s, University of London University of Surrey
  • Swansea University
  • Newcastle University
  • University of West of England
  • Maastricht University, Netherlands
  • University of Basel, Switzerland
Overarching aim To develop a network exploring the ethics of conducting randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving ambulance services

To undertake a systematic review of ethical approaches in published RCTs and protocols involving ambulance services in the UK and elsewhere since 2000. We will also compare legal and ethical requirements for gaining consent in emergency settings in the UK, mainland Europe, US and Australia, where most studies have been conducted.

To conduct pilot qualitative studies with stakeholders, including patients and ambulance staff in the East Midlands, to explore perceptions of the ethics of ambulance trials.

To organise networking events with researchers, ambulance leaders, policymakers and ethicists involved in UK ambulance trials to present and discuss findings, develop preliminary recommendations for best practice, and plan further studies into ethics and conduct of ambulance trials.

Methods Systematic review and qualitative interviews
  • A network of UK expertise in the ethics and conduct of ambulance trials;
  • A systematic review and narrative synthesis of ethical approaches in ambulance trials published since 2000;
  • A review of current legal and ethical requirements in ambulance trials in UK and beyond;
  • Pilot studies to inform further research into the ethical issues presented by ambulance RCTs;
  • Preliminary statements of best practice and proposals for future research into the ethics of ambulance trials

Peer reviewed publications, networking events and conference presentations.

Peer reviewed publications

Conference presentations

  • Armstrong S, Langlois A, Laparidou D, Dixon M, Appleton JP, Bath PM, Snooks H, Siriwardena AN (2017) Consent as an ethical consideration in the conduct of prehospital ambulance randomised controlled clinical trials: a systematic review. In: EMS 999 Research Forum: The Way Forward for Emergency Care Research: Inclusion; Collaboration; Sustainability, 29 March 2017, Bristol.
  • Armstrong S, Langlois A, Quinn T, Siriwardena AN (2017) Ethical considerations in prehospital ambulance based research: an interview study of expert informants. In: Trent Regional SAPC Meeting, 21 March 2017, Lincoln.
Impact The activities have helped raise awareness among researchers, practitioners, ethics committees and the public of developments in the ethics and conduct of ambulance trials and are providing much needed research to inform recommendations for best ethical practice in future trials.


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